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Introduction of Elementary Particles

Until its development in the third decade of the 20th century, the scientific atomic theory did not differ philosophically very much from that of Dalton, although at first sight the difference may appear large. Dalton's atoms were no longer considered to be immutable and indivisible; new elementary particles sometimes appeared on the scene; and molecules were no longer seen as a mere juxtaposition of atoms--when entering into a compound atoms became ions. Yet, these differences were only accidental; the atoms revealed themselves as composed of more elementary particles--protons, neutrons, and electrons--but these particles themselves were considered then as immutable. Thus the general picture remained the same. The material world was still thought to be composed of smallest particles, which differed in nature and which in certain definite ways could form relatively stable structures (atoms). These structures were able to form new combinations (molecules) by exchanging certain component parts (electrons). The whole process was ruled by well-known mechanical and electrodynamic laws.

In contemporary atomic theory the differences from Dalton are much more fundamental. The hypothesis of the existence of immutable elementary particles has been abandoned: elementary particles can be transformed into radiation and vice versa. And when they combine into greater units, the particles do not necessarily preserve their identity; they can be absorbed into a greater whole.

Two Types of Particles

The two most fundamental types of particles are quarks and leptons. The quarks and leptons are divided into 6 flavors corresponding to three generations of matter. Quarks (and antiquarks) have electric charges in units of 1/3 or 2/3's. Leptons have charges in units of 1 or 0.

Note that for every quark or lepton there is a corresponding antiparticle. For example, there is an up antiquark, an anti-electron (called a positron) and an anti-neutrino. Bosons do not have antiparticles since they are force carriers

Fundamental Forces :

Matter is effected by forces or interactions (the terms are interchangeable). There are four fundamental forces in the Universe:

1.gravitation (between particles with mass)
2.electromagnetic (between particles with charge/magnetism)
3.strong nuclear force (between quarks)
4.weak nuclear force (operates between neutrinos and electrons)

What are the effects when particles interact with Photons or Gluons in the electromagnetic force is the purpose of this project.

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